What language do they speak in Syria?
Simply put the answer is Arabic. The only official language of Syria is Arabic and most media and education is conducted using Modern Standard Arabic (MSA). However, conversationally Syrians speak Levantine Arabic, which is similar to that spoken in Lebanon.
Many Syrians today speak some basic English and may even know some French as a left over from past French rule.
Arabic is not the only language spoken in the country though, with Syria being made up of numerous minority groups. The largest of which is the Kurds, who are mainly based in the North East of the country and speak mainly Kurdish. This is the second most spoken language in the country, however it is not recognised as an official language. Turkish is also spoken in the Northern border areas near Turkey.
A fun fact about Syria is that is the only place left in the world where people speak Aramaic, the very same language spoken by Jesus. Maaloula, a village northeast of Damascus is one of three villages that currently still speak it. Aramaic is considered a dying language though sadly, as less and less people are learning it and to make things more difficult it has no written form.